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Scots across the British Empire

Yet if anyone was to benefit from the spoils of the British Empire, it was the Scots, both as merchant adventurers and colonisers of the Carolinas, Virginia and New England. More controversially, however, it was the large-scale forced depopulation of the Scottish Highlands throughout the late 18th and 19th centuries that was to have the greatest impact on the New World.

Social reformers, then and now, have a lot to answer for. In the aftermath of the almost successful Jacobite uprising of 1745, the conclusion was reached that the ancient crofting way of Highland life was not only no longer viable, but dangerous because of the fighting men it could field. As a result, entire communities were uprooted from their homes and encouraged to emigrate overseas.

The rights and wrongs of this will be dissected so long as there is a Highlander with a grievance, but Scotlandís loss was the lifeblood of the New World. What many found hard to forgive, however, is that it was a legislature based in England, operating through its agents in Scotland, which made it happen. Nevertheless, through widespread emigration was created what some of our politicians have started to refer to as "The Scottish Diaspora", a network of Scottish communities throughout America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. And what a network it is.

You find them managing rubber plantations in Malaya; building skyscrapers in New York, owning sheep stations in Australia, and drilling for oil in Kuwait. They run newspapers, magazines and television stations globally. They manage money in Poland, initiate Internet sites and lay pipelines in Turkey. They are international and many give their allegiances to other nations, but they still call themselves Scots.

On 6th April, America now annually celebrates Tartan Day, the anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320, wherein long ago nobles of Scotland demanded recognition of their rights by the Pope in Rome. Many of the same sentiments are echoed in the American Declaration of Independence and it can be no coincidence that almost half of the signatories of that document were of Scottish origin.

The number of Americans with Scottish ancestry is currently estimated at between eleven million and fifteen million. George Washington himself claimed descent from Scotlandís King Malcolm II, and no less than thirty-one presidents of the United States, from Thomas Jefferson to Ronald Reagan and William Jefferson Clinton have Scots credentials. The same is true of prime ministers of Canada, Australia and New Zealand. During the Napoleonic Wars, Marshal of France, Jacques Etienne Macdonald, was a Scot, as was his opposite number in Russia, Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly. The Scots missionary David Livingston discovered the source of the Nile and the explorer Sir John Ross traversed Baffin Bay for the first time. Scots traders created Hong Kong. So long as Britain was an ocean going nation, it was reassuring to know every shipís engineer, regardless of the nationality of the shipping line flag, was a Scot. The world was their oyster.

Nearer home, they crossed the Border to seek fame and fortune in the global ant heap of London. Could the English possibly have prospered without them? That is an impossible question to answer. It was, after all, a Scot who founded the Bank of England, and the City of London, financial centre of the world, owes everything to their native cunning.

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